Friday, February 21, 2020

Globalization Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 8

Globalization - Essay Example Majority of the working mothers seek help from day care centres so that they can work more independently without any responsibility or hassel. (Darling, 2003, 290) They do not get enough time to teach moral and cultural values to their children. It is not much about ethnicity of mothers, but more about the economical, social and cultural back ground they belong. For example, children of separated or diviced parents seem to be more insecure and less confident. Such children are used by their parents to get their motives. Seperated parents use their children to justify their break ups. (Stoll, 2000, 202) When a child experiences all this happening around him, that makes him feel no body loves or want to have them in the whole world. When such children grow up they tend to have more apprehension and aggression and are more expected as grown ups to get into similar type of weak relationships. This has been observed that the rate of poverty is much lesser in married couples that is nearly 5.7%; as compare to single-parent family that is nearly 33.4%. Single mothers end up in getting welfare dependent. Single parent welfare programs and policies are a major cause of traditional nuclear family collapse and they contribute in lowering work and responsible conduct on part of parents. (Charles, Nickie, 2002, 02) Such programmes have also caused a sky scraping rate of break ups, which eventually results in even greater number of welfare recipients, a high rate of poor health conditions, crime, and behavioral dilemmas, lesser interest in education and add to the possibility of obstacles in future for such persons. Statistics reveals that children who are brought up in a single-parent family are more expected to be deprived and encounter more psychological and behavioral difficulties in life. They are more likely to start substance addition and get involved in criminal activities later in life. (Maccoby & Martin,

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

How pedagogical principles could be applied to information systems Coursework

How pedagogical principles could be applied to information systems likes Intranet in organizations - Coursework Example Focusing on this aspect, the essay describes about how pedagogical principles can be applied in information system such as intranet in organisations for better management of information and learning. Pedagogical Principles Pedagogical principles are effective tool for information management and learning which can demonstrate the aspects to be educated. They are pragmatic and can produce rich set of real-world and instructional experiences which can be further used in organisations for solving practical problems. Pedagogical principles are functional proposition of training and knowledge development. These principles simplify the procedure of devising instructive strategies which in turn determine how people experience, involve and react to the informative components. Ideally, pedagogical principles are first expressed in general terms and afterwards with respect to specific actual learning environment (Anderson & McCormick, 2011). The applicability of pedagogical principles have alwa ys considered as interesting topic from the viewpoint of information system. Pedagogical principles are influenced by national, cultural and circumstantial situations. During innovation process, pedagogical principles are developed and applied according to experiences. The implementation of pedagogical principles occurs by perception of regular viability and the influence of market, competitive environment and collective development such as information system (Anderson & McCormick, 2011). There are several pedagogical principles and some of the important principles are as follows. Involvement of learners: Pedagogy must involve the learners and motivate them. This involvement must be evident of being educational, i.e. having educational objectives and inspiring. In other words, learners’ involvement must be pleasurable that would make them to continue to use information system (Anderson & McCormick, 2011). Effective learning: Another vital pedagogical principle is related with effective learning which can be demonstrated by the utilisation of different approaches, allowing learners to extend the knowledge or by providing genuine learning prospects, allowing them to understand multiple perspectives on a single subject among others (Anderson & McCormick, 2011). Summative evaluation: Summative evaluation is also an important pedagogic principle which is used for understanding work or educational opportunities. It helps to understand the criteria that are required to be developed for accomplishing better performance (Anderson & McCormick, 2011). Simplicity: According to pedagogical principle, learning must be simple, i.e. effective learning should be open, accessible, intuitive and must not necessitate guidance for utilisation. Inclusion: Pedagogy must support inclusive activities with respect to diverse types s of job accomplishments and within different social or cultural groups (Anderson & McCormick, 2011). Information System in Organisations Information system is the term which is commonly used in various fields including business with different purposes. It play vital role in organisations to utilise knowledge and to accomplish strategic organisational objectives. Organisations generally spend considerable amount of money in order to successfully integrate information syst

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

The Evolution Of Global International Societies Politics Essay

The Evolution Of Global International Societies Politics Essay In this paper I would discuss the evolution of global international society during First World War, Second World War and Post Cold War period and how does it reflect itself in present times especially in three area viz- In International Organizations, In international civil society and In market economy. Social relations that is, the countless and complex ways in which the people interact with and affect each other are more and more being conducted and organized on the basis of a planetary unit. As historically and conventionally understood, international relations are relations of territorially based political groups. If we arrive at a definition of international society, it stands for relations between politically organized human groupings which occupy distinctive territories and enjoy and exercise a measure of independence of each other.  [1]  In the language of international relations, such detached communities are referred to as states which are usually conceptualized as consisting of 1.) permanent population, 2.) occupying a definite territory, 3.) which is under a central government and 4.) which is sovereign. Hedley Bull  [2]  defines international society as a society of states exists when a group of states, conscious of certain common interests and common values, form a society in the sense that they conceive themselves to be bound by a common set of rules in their relations with one another. It is pertinent to distinguish globalization from internationalization here. Globalization refers to all those processes by which the people of the world are incorporated into a single world society i.e. a global society. Globalization is thus an ongoing trend whereby the world has become one relatively borderless social sphere. Globalization can also be indicated by terms like liberalization, universalization and deterritorialization. On the other hand internationalization refers to a process of intensifying connections between national domains. In international relations, countries are divided from each other by clearly marked frontiers as well as by substantial time that is generally required to cover the distance between their respective territories. Whereas global phenomenon can extend across the world at the same time and can move between places i n no time, in the sense they have a supra-territorial and transnational character. While patterns of international interdependence are strongly influenced by nation- state divisions, the lines of global interconnections often have little correspondence to territorial boundaries. The first phase of evolution of international society can be traced back from the year 1900, in which the world was dominated by a small group of economically prosperous and populous European states, whose empires encompassed much of the globe. The internal roots of Europes instability dated back to 1870s, when the continents relative tranquility was disturbed by the creation of a single unified German state as a result of Napoleonic wars. The unified Germanys expansion ambitions for territory and markets were a cause of concern for Britain, France and Tsarist Russia, emerging in an attempt to halt Germany. Britain and France dominated Asia, Africa and Middle East, Russia in Japan and Britain competed in China while U.S. held sway in Latin America. This disruption of balance of power in combination of imperial, nationalist and economic tension ultimately resulted in the First World War in 1914. The alliance system built up was Austria, Hungary and Germany on one side and Britain, Fra nce and Russia on the other. The war finally ended with the gathering of peacemakers at Versailles in 1919. This was the first instance of inception of global international society taking shape to maintain peace in post war period. It is to be noticed here that at Versailles the guiding force was not one or more of the European powers but the United States. It is at this time the principle of self-determination came up prominently. Future wars were to be deterred by the League of Nations, which would take collective action against aggressor states. Finally, Germany was found guilty of having begun the war as a result it lost its land to Poland and France, it was disarmed and reparations were to be made to the victorious powers. However, many critics like Taylor found that Versailles was not hard enough. The German problem was unresolved as Germany still remained the largest unitary state in the heart of Europe. Moreover, Germanys potential to wage war had not been absolutely destroy ed. Thus, the treaty of Versailles seemed to fail in the absence of any major power committed to upholding it. Then comes the second phase of the evolution of international society that is the Second World War, whose origin can be traced from the Great Depression of 1929 caused by the stock market crash in America. The global impact of the shock waves of crash illustrates the degree to which states in the inter-war years were not entirely autonomous entities. Its symptoms like spiraling inflation, collapse of consumer demand in industrial countries, decline in manufacturing industry, massive unemployment concluded that globalization in economic terms, was a potent reality. In wake of such economic turmoil, Japan in order to find new markets, raw material and land for its population began expansion into China. Between 1931-33, Japan consolidated its hold over Manchuria. By 1937, Japan was at war with China which caused worsening relations with U.S. ultimately leading to Japans attack on Pearl Harbor. On the other hand in Europe, the Nazi territorial expansionism under Hitler went beyond the pr ovisions of Treaty of Versailles. Confronted with numerous international crises in China and Europe, Britain and France adopted a policy of appeasing Hitler. But in March 1939 appeasement was abandoned once Germany invaded Poland and Britain and France declared war on Germany. Alliance of Britain, France, America and USSR came together to fight Axis powers of Japan, Italy and Germany. The Second World War was unquestionably global in scope ending the era of European domination of the world. The U.S. put the full stop on war by using its might and dropping atom bomb on Japans Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The end of Second World War led to the third phase of evolution i.e. the onset of Cold War between Soviet and America. The failure to implement principles agreed at the wartime and issues concerning the failure of Germany and Poland grew tension between wartime allies. The expansion of Soviet towards Eastern Europe and American opposition to it, American military deployment in Britain and signing of NATO Treaty in 1949 were some of the key issues in cold war. Agreements on limiting and controlling the growth of nuclear arsenals have played an important role in Soviet- American relations. A set of treaties like START-1 and START-2 marked the end of cold war and laid down the ground for cordial relations between disintegrated Russia and America. From the above discussion it can be inferred that whenever any crises has arisen in the past, be it political, social or financial, various states transcending their territorial boundaries have come forward unitedly to counter it. The era of colonialism and imperialism is done away with and the world does not have any one central power like Europe, U.S or Russia now. The global trends have replaced the unipolar world structure to that of multipolar world structure. The present world order has undergone tremendous transformation by changing global patterns of international organizations, issues of universal concern, global civil society, humanitarian issues, trade and economy and many more which we will discuss in forthcoming paragraphs. The very first consolidation of international society made itself evident in the form of United Nations Organization which took birth after the havoc of Second World War. The main objective of UN is to maintain international peace and order and to prevent situations leading to war by means of pacific settlement. The basic principle adopted by the member states was of self-determination. Presently the membership of UN is up to 192, which clearly signifies it as a forum where all countries whether small or big, powerful or weak, developed or underdeveloped interact with each other and manifest themselves as a global community. International Court of Justice, UNICEF, UNDP, UNHCR etc. some of the organs of UN having varied work fields. Peace keeping missions, economic sanctions on erring states and the right to self defense are some such distinctive features of the organization which keep intact the principle of self-determination. But critics often raise the question mark upon the decis ions taken by UN as a representative and collective world body. The imbalanced sharing of decision making power at the executive body of UN i.e. Security Council clearly manifest the hegemony of superpowers like U.S., U.K., China, Russia and France. Waging Iraq war, Gulf war, Palestine and Israel crisis, Afghanistan problem in the name of maintaining international peace and security is the mockery and exclusion of international society in the real sense. Similar is the case with international financial organizations like IMF and WB. IMF was created to promote international monetary cooperation and resolve the inter-war economic problems. The IMF now has a membership of 183 countries each of whom contribute a quota of resources to the organization proportionate to the size of their economy which also determines their percentage of voting rights and the amount of resources to which they can have automatic access to. Although it would be wrong to out rightly negate the role played by t hem in the infrastructure development, poverty reduction, raising living standards but down the line the practices of protectionism and favourism followed by superpowers have hampered its functioning. The frequent failure of WTO round of talks due to widening divide between the developed and developing is not a different story. The international organizations most of the times end up being super power organizations. In the age of globalization the structure of nation state has undergone tremendous transformation. The relevance of geographical boundaries has fainted and the world has become a borderless entity. This aspect of globalization has led to the formulation of local issues like poverty, hunger and development etc. into global concerns. The other most important issues of global concern are environment, terrorism, gender inequality and human right violations. To tackle such wide range of issues, the international society manifests itself broadly as non-state actors and particularly as global civil society, voluntary organizations, intergovernmental organizations and international non-governmental organizations. Such organizations are the source of new political and social change. Red Cross, Amnesty International, World Social Forum, Cry are some such bandwagons which raise the local issues to international forums and play an important part in designing policies affecting the lives of billi ons of people across the world. Especially the gender issues of violence, inhuman treatment, lack of opportunities, female foeticide, trafficking of women and children are now concerns of every country of the world and are redressed as never before. Owing to the efforts of such civil society groups the awareness of human rights has become a global phenomenon. The universalization and homogenization of globe has made the whole world as their work field. The discourse on globalization would remain incomplete without the mention of global market patterns after the end of cold war. This era can be recognized as an era of triumph which swept away all the barriers to the operation of the market around the world and transformed the character of international politics. Now the governments have reduced their military spending and started making their markets efficient and open as per the growing needs. New technologies, computerization and communication provides opportunity for small business and individual entrepreneurs, empowering excluded persons and social groups. The state monopoly is reduced, the culture of multinationals and transnationals is strengthening the universal labor standards and unions are more organized to stand against exploitation at larger level. The rise of giant corporations and cartels serve as new modes of social control and regulation. Post-industrialist theorists like Daniel Bell call the present society as infor mation society and present age as technocapitalism. According to J. Baudrillard  [3]  technology and capitalism have permeated every aspect of society. While Gilder  [4]  , Gates  [5]  and Friedman  [6]  defend technology as legitimizing capitalism on the other hand Heideggar call it a complete Europianization of the earth and man. Critics however characterize global capitalism by a decline of the state and increased power of the market and globalised transnational corporations. Hence both negative and positive versions of economic determinism exist. From the above discourse we can infer that pro globalization theorists hold a view that global international society has undergone a shift to be called as a global community. One glaring example that is often quoted by them is of its consolidated expression was visible after the Sept. 11 attack in U.S. where the whole world stood against and pledged to eradicate terrorism from the world. Several such examples can be cited and the recent is of democratic triumph in Egypt which was appraised and supported by global society. It is also true that the natural calamity of Japan will also reflect itself in its economic relations. I also agree that in the present age of globalization the world has emerged as a single entity and events happening in one part of the world within no time affect the other parts of the globe as well. But according to me, it would be wrong to say that in the age of globalization the world has become borderless and free of divisions. Although, its true that we have done away with imperialism and colonization but what about categorization of the world community on the lines of developed, developing and underdeveloped nations? Would it be right to call Sudan, Lebanon and Bangladesh as globalised nations? Are these countries the flag marchers of globalization? No, I think certainly not. The poor are still poor and the hungry are still hungry. The situation of underdeveloped and least developed nations in South-Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa still holds a pathetic picture. Developed countries regard poverty as something external to them and a defining feature of third world. In recent decades global food production has burgeoned but paradoxically hunger and malnourishment remain widespread. Access and entitlements are affected by factors such as North- South divide, rural urban divides, class, gender and race. World economy is not global rather trade, investment and financial flows are concentrated in and between 3 blocks- Europe, North America and Japan. It is also correct that globalization is very uneven in its effects. Internet, telephones are still distant dreams for least developed countries. Critics also noted that outcome of globalization allows more efficient exploitation of less well off nations, by bodies like IMF, WB and WTO and technologies are designed to benefit richest economies. Thus, it can be concluded that present form of international society has acquired a more global outreach but paradoxically the balance of power is still tilted towards the developed economies. To balance this equation the state actors like government, diplomats, politicians as well as non-state actors like civil society, voluntary groups, MNCs and TNCs etc. should work with the principle of social welfare of every single poor hungry person irrespective of his national identity. Then only the world will become a global village in a real sense.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Moral and Ethical Issues of Euthanasia Essay -- Euthanasia Physician A

Moral and Ethical Issues of Euthanasia    As we all know, medical treatment can help save lives. But is there a medical treatment that would actually help end life? Although it's often debated upon, the procedure is still used to help the aid of a patient's death. Usually dubbed as mercy killing, euthanasia is the "practice of ending a life so as to release an individual from an incurable disease or intolerable suffering" (Encarta). My argument over this topic is that euthanasia should have strict criteria over the use of it. There are different cases of euthanasia that should be looked at and different point of views that should be considered. I will be looking into VE (Voluntary Euthanasia), which involves a request by the dying patient or that person's legal representative. These different procedures are as follows: passive or negative euthanasia, which involves not doing something to prevent death or allowing someone to die and active or positive euthanasia which involves taking deliberate action to cause a death. I have reasons to believe that passive or negative euthanasia can be a humane way of end suffering, while active or positive euthanasia is not. According Richard Gula, active euthanasia is legally considered homicide (5). Another intervention and approach to euthanasia could be through the use of analgesic means. The use of morphine or other anesthetic medication could be used to allow the patient to die or hasten their dying process. I consider the latter procedure to be more humane than that of the other because it is morally wrong to kill a person, rather it's humane for someone to die naturally. Before I discuss the rights and wrongs of euthanasia, I will define death or a person, when is it safe to say... ...Jack D. "Euthanasia." Microsoft ® Encarta ® 98 Encyclopedia.  © 1993-1997: Microsoft Corporation. CD-ROM. Frederick, Calvin J. "Death and Dying." Microsoft ® Encarta ® 98 Encyclopedia.  © 1993-1997: Microsoft Corporation. CD-ROM. Gula, Richard M. What Are They Saying About Euthanasia?. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1986. McGee, Glenn and Arthur L. Caplan. "Medical Ethics." Microsoft ® Encarta ® 98 Encyclopedia.  © 1993-1997: Microsoft Corporation. CD-ROM. President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Defining Death: A Report on the Medical, Legal and Ethical Issues in the Determination of Death. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1981. Robert Matz; Daniel P. Sudmasy; Edward D. Pallegrino. "Euthanasia: Morals and Ethics." Archives of Internal Medicine 1999: p1815 Aug. 9, 1999 .

Sunday, January 12, 2020

An Analysis Of The Financial Annual Report Of Victrex Plc Accounting Essay

1.0 IntroductionThis paper comprises of two subdivisions. The first subdivision involves an analysis of the fiscal one-year study of Victrex Plc in 2010, and appraisal of the public presentation of the concern in 2010 in comparing to the old twelvemonth 2009. The analysis will be carried out by reexamining the fiscal information provided in the company ‘s one-year study allocated for this paper. The type of information included in said one-year study are the Chairman ‘s statement, the Chief Executive Officer ‘s reappraisal, Financial Director ‘s study, the Director ‘s study & A ; the fiscal statements such as income statement, balance sheet and hard currency flow statement. An overview of the concern public presentation over the last five old ages will besides be discussed. The relevant ratios will be computed in order to analyze the public presentation of the concern and suggestion decisions and tax write-offs where appropriate. Other relevant informati on such as corporate administration and accounting policies will be considered and discussed. The 2nd subdivision of this paper will analyze the relevancy of working capital direction in a concern and discoursing how the author playing the function of financial officer impacted on working capital.Furthermore, techniques such as fringy costing and budgeting and their benefits in the decision-making procedure will be compared to the existent universe state of affairs.1.1 COMPANY OVERVIEWVictrex Plc is a taking planetary maker of high public presentation thermoplastics polymers which began utilizing the VICTREXA ®PEEK in Western Europe and United States to turn to the demands in the automotive and transit sector. As concern became planetary, Victrex expanded into high turning markets such as Japan, China, India, Russia, and Brazil. The company has over 30years experience in the production of polyketone. Within this clip of operation, Victrex Plc has a production, engineering, client service and distribution squad that spans over 30 states worldwide. Victrex Plc portions are li sted in the London Stock Exchange. Victrex Plc comprises of two divisions viz. the Victrex Polymer Solution and the Invibio Biomaterial Solutions. Victrex Polymer Solution focuses on the conveyance, industrial and the electronic markets. This division specialises in the development and industry of high public presentation polyaryletherketones such as VICTREXA ®PEEKa„? polymer, VICOTEA ® coatings and APTIVa„? movies. On the other manus, Invibio Biomaterial Solutions focuses on supplying specialist solutions for medical device makers. This division provides entree to extremely specialized biocompatible PEEK- based stuffs and services for medical device makers. Their trade names are PEEK-OPTIMA, MOTIS, PEEK-CLASSIX and ENDOLIGN. VICTREXA ®PEEK Polymer is behind most of today ‘s invention in markets runing from automotive, energy, electronics, aerospace, semi music directors, medical, nutrient processing and fabrics.1.2 FIVE Year FINANCIAL SUMMARY REVIEWThe one-year study 2010 of Victrex Plc has some information over the last five old ages of the public presentation of the Organisation. Information in the one-year study high spots consequences on gross, net income before revenue enhancement, balance sheets, hard currency flow ratios and sale volume. However, this study shows that the gross of the company for the past five old ages increased by 6.9 % between 2006 ( ? 122.5m ) and 2007 ( ? 131.0m ) . This growing was due to an addition in gross revenues of their industrial market which went up 16 % above the old twelvemonth due to increase in demand for oil and gas and chemical processing clients. The conveyance market besides increased by 6 % as a consequence of increased commercial aerospace gross revenues. Regionally, United States was up 9 % due to growing in the automotive, commercial aerospace and oil and gas sections, but was partly offset by a decrease in semiconducting material gross revenues. Asia Pacific gross revenues were up 13 % as a growing in addition gross revenues of conveyance and electronics ( Victrex, 2010 ) . In the old ages 2007 and 2008, the company experienced an addition of 7.7 % from ?131.0m in 2007 to ?141.1m in 2008. This growing was as a consequence of addition in gross revenues in Japan and the United States. Besides addition in the commercial aerospace gross revenues in United States and Europe led to the growing in gross ( Victrex, 2010 ) . In Year 2008 and Year 2009, Based on the impact of clients destocking, there was a lessening of ( 26.4 ) % in gross from ?141.1m in 2008 to ?103.8 in 2009. This decrease was as a consequence of decrease of gross revenues volume based on the economic downswing. Transport gross revenues decreased by 41 % in 2009 due to important diminution in automotive gross revenues across all parts. Industrial sale volume besides decreased by 35 % in 2009 as a consequence of reduced oil and gas demand, this besides became resilient based on the economic downswing ( Victrex, 2010 ) . Finally, the study shows that the greatest addition in gross within the five twelvemonth period was between 2009 and 2010 as gross addition was 82.6 % from ?103.8 in 2009 to ?189.5 in 2010. This was as a consequence of addition in gross revenues volume from 1547 metric tons to 2535 metric tons. The benefit of improved implicit in exchange rates as the sterling weakened against their currencies during the twelvemonth besides had a positive impact. Increased gross revenues in electronics were up by 96 % over 2009 which reflected strong gross revenues into the client electronics and semi music director fabrication sector. High demand of merchandises resulted in an addition of gross revenues in the geographical and industrial market which allowed for high stock list degrees and fabrication rates. The addition in gross revenues was as a consequence of restocking tendencies. Other markets such as transport gross revenues volume increased by 59 % over 2009, Industrial gross revenues increas ed by 53 % over 2009. Aerospace showed strong growing due to a combination of higher production degrees and new aircrafts orders driven by positive tendencies and prognosis for both concern and touristry travel, and new application development for the merchandises to assist run into demands ( Victrex, 2010 ) . From the one-year study given for the operating net income ( Net income before involvement and revenue enhancement ) , it can be seen that in twelvemonth 2006 it was ?46.1m and increased in twelvemonth 2007 to ?52.0m, amounting to an addition of ?5.9m. Besides in old ages 2007 and twelvemonth 2008, there was an addition of ?3.0m with operating net income in 2007 as ?52.0m and in 2008 as ?55.0m. However, there was a lessening of ( ?29.9m ) in twelvemonth 2008 and 2009, with operating net income of in 2008 as ?55.0m and in 2009 as ?25.1m. In twelvemonth 2010, the company made the greatest addition of ?49.8m in operating net income between twelvemonth 2009 as ?25.1m and twelvemonth 2010 as ?74.9m ( Victrex, 2010 ) . These figures are illustrated in the diagram belowFigure 1: Victrex Plc ‘s Five Year Gross and Net income before Interest and TaxFrom the chart, it can be deduced that the company had an addition in gross and net income before involvement and revenue enhancement from Y ear 2006- 2008, a decrease in Year 2009 and a important addition in Year 2010.2.0 VICTREX ANNUAL REPORT ANALYSISIn measuring the fiscal state of affairs of Victrex Plc, it is required to look at its Amalgamate Income Statement, Consolidated Balance sheet and Cash Flow Statement. The Ratio Analysis is deduced utilizing four wide countries such as Profitability Ratios, Efficiency Ratios, Liquidity Ratios and Investment Ratios ( White et al. , 2003 ) . For the intent of this paper, the figures used are from the 2010 Annual Report and are calculated in ?million ( m ) .2.1 INTERPRETATION OF ACCOUNTSRatios are indexs to an penetration on countries that need to be examined in more inside informations by comparing the old twelvemonth ( 2009 ) to the undermentioned twelvemonth ( 2010 ) of Victrex Plc ( Perry, 2011 ) . Hence, the ratios are interconnected and used to pull decisions from the analysis by measuring a company ‘s public presentation. To this terminal, Victrex Plc will be ana lysed utilizing the four wide countries of ratio analysis.2.1.1 GrossThe company ‘s income statement shows that gross was up by 82 % to ?189.5m in 2010 from ?103.8m in 2009. This addition was as a consequence of addition in gross revenues volume by 64 % due to a strong recoil in demand across all markets in Europe, Middle East and Africa ( ‘EMEA ‘ ) , America, Asia Pacific and United Kingdom. Besides there was depreciation in sterling as this resulted in the addition of gross of other markets, which enabled the company benefit from the exchange rate derived function. The one-year study shows that the changeless exchange rate of the gross was up 47 % compared to 2009 ( Victrex, 2010 ) .2.1.2 PROFITABILITY RATIOProfitability ratios are used to find how productively the concern is runing. Thus Net income is a step of a concern success ; therefore these ratios are watched by both internal users and external users such as direction and stockholders ( Jones, 2006 ) . Pro fitability ratios comprises of Return on Capital Employed, Return on Total Assets, Return on Shareholders Fund, Gross net income Ratio, Operating Profit Ratio and Mark-up Ratio ( Perry, 2011 ) .2.1.2.1 RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYEDThis ratio considers how efficaciously a company uses its capital employed ( Jones, 2006 ) .According to Perry ( 2011 ) , Return on Capital Employed is defined as: ROCE= Net income before Interest & amp ; Tax ( Operating Profit ) x 100 Entire Assets- Current Liabilities ( Capital Employed ) In 2010, it was 74.9m Ten 100 = 74.9m A-100 = 31.67 % 279.0m – 42.5m 236.5m In 2009, it was 25.1m Ten 100 = 25.1m A- 100 = 12.89 % 221.0m – 26.3m 194.7m From the computation above, it shows that there was an addition of 18.78 % in 2010 compared to 2009. This was due to the operating net income, entire assets and current liabilities. In footings of the operating net income, the addition was up 198 % to ?74.9m in 2010 from ?25.1m in 2009 and this was as a consequence of an addition in gross net income which was impacted by the addition in gross and cost of gross revenues. The gross net income increased 87 % with the gross border at 63.6 % of the gross in 2010.The gross border was 62.1 % in 2009 and was up 63.6 % in 2010. The 1.5 % difference was due to positive impact of currency partly offset by an addition in ‘cost per metric ton ‘ as gross revenues were mostly out of stock list produced in 2009. There was a lessening in production volumes in 2009 as a consequence in increased fixed production costs per metric ton. Gross saless, selling and administrative disbursals increased by 16 % to ?45.7m in 2010 from ?39.4m in 2009 as a consequence of elements of staff wage being linked to the fiscal public presentation. There were besides investings in resources to drive new application development across both divisions. The one-year study besides shows the changeless exchange rate was up 53 % compared to 2009. The Entire Assets besides increased by 26.2 % to ?279m in 2010 from ?221m in 2009, this was as a consequence of an addition in hard currency with ?77.2m in 2010 from ?18.6m in 2009 which reflects the strong recoil in gross revenues generated from operations which was shown on the hard currency flow statement. The current liabilities were up due to an addition in trade and other payables that were affected by accumulations of ?18.7m in 2010 from ?8.8m in 2009 which implies the company still has hard currency to pay to their creditors ( Victrex, 2010 ) .2.1.2.2 RETURN ON TOTAL ASSETSThis ratio shows how good a concern is profitable in relation to its invested assets and what it has taken to fund it ( Dys on, 2007 ) . Harmonizing to Perry ( 2011 ) , Return on Total Assets can be defined as: ROTA = Net income before Interest and Tax A- 100 Entire Assetss In 2010, it was 74.9m A- 100 = 26.85 % 279m In 2009, it was 25.1m A- 100 = 11.36 % 221m The computation above shows that there is an addition of 15.49 % in 2009 to 2010. But this addition was due to an increased operating net income every bit good as an addition in entire assets. As discussed in ROCE, the operating net income increased due to increase in gross net income of 87 % within 2009 and 2010, cost of gross revenues of 75.3 % in 2009 and 2010 and gross of 82 % in 2009 and 2010. Besides in footings of the entire assets, there was an addition in hard currency and hard currency equivalents of 315 % between 2009 and 2010, addition in trade and other receivables which implies addition in money owed to the company by debitors of 21.6 % between 2009 and 2010 and an addition in deferred Tax assets of 36.6 % between 2009 and 2010 ( Victrex, 2010 ) .2.1.2.3 RETURN ON SHAREHOLDERS FundssThis ratio measures how good the direction turned the return on capital employed to a return on the financess invested by the stockholders ( Millichamp, 1997 ) . Harmonizing to Perry ( 2011 ) , Return on Shareholders Fundss can be defined as: ROSF = Profit after Tax ( Net incomes ) A- 100 Stockholders Fundss In 2010, it was 54m A- 100 = 25.60 % 211m In 2009, it was 17.8m A- 100 = 10.60 % 168m From the computation above, there was a 15 % addition between 2009 and 2010 in the return of stockholder ‘s financess. This addition is due to an addition of gross which was as a major accelerator in hiking gross revenues and besides depreciation in the sterling which increased the gross from other markets. Besides there was an addition in the stockholders financess of ?43m between 2009 and 2010, due to the fact that the managers recommended the payment of a concluding dividend of 18.6p per ordinary portion and a particular dividend of 50.0p per ordinary portion, as a consequence of this, there was an addition in the portion premium. Based on the ROSF, it is likely the stockholders will appreciate the consequences, as this shows an addition from the old twelvemonth and the company is doing net income in 2010 ( Victrex, 2010 ) .2.1.2.4 GROSS PROFIT MARGINThis ratio calculates the net income earned through trading, it is utile in a concern where stock is purchased, marked up and so resold ( Jones, 2006 ) . Harmonizing to Perry ( 2011 ) , Gross Profit Margin can be defined as: Gross Profit Margin = Gross Profit A- 100 Gross saless In 2010, it was 120.6m A- 100 = 63.64 % 189.5m In 2009, it was 64.5m A-100 = 62.14 % 103.8m As can be seen above, the Gross net income border difference between 2009 and 2010 is 1.50 % . This addition was based on increased Cost of gross revenues every bit good as in addition in gross. The gross net income increased 87 % with the gross border at 63.6 % of the gross in 2010. The gross border grew to 63.6 % in 2010 from 62.1 % in 2009.The 1.5 % difference was due to positive impact of currency partly offset by an addition in ‘cost per metric ton ‘ as gross revenues were mostly out of stock list produced in 2009. There was a lessening in production volumes in 2009 as a consequence of increased fixed production costs per metric ton. Besides, there was an addition in gross revenues which led to the addition in gross to 82 % to ?189.5m in 2010 from ?103.8m in 2009. Besides depreciation in sterling besides helped the company ‘s growing as the gross of the other markets increased ( Victrex, 2010 ) .2.1.2.5 OPERATING Net income MarginThis is an of import fiscal ind ex ; it is calculated after disbursal in the net income and loss history. It is largely used for internal comparing due to the fact that differing accounting policies applied by different concerns make external comparing complicated ( Perry, 2011 ) . Operating Net income Margin can be defined as: Operating Net income Margin = Net income before Interest and Tax A- 100 ( Perry, 2011 ) Gross saless In 2010, it was 74.9m A- 100 = 39.53 % 189.5m In 2009, it was 25.1m A- 100 = 24.18 % 103.8m The operating net income border difference between 2009 and 2010 is 15.35 % as this was as a consequence of the addition in the operating net income which was up 198 % to ?74.9m in 2010 from ?25.1m in 2009. This was as a consequence of addition in the gross revenues, selling and administrative disbursals and gross net income, every bit good as increased gross revenues. Gross saless, selling and administrative disbursals increased by 16 % to ?45.7m in 2010 from ?39.4m in 2009 as a consequence of elements of staff wage being linked to the fiscal public presentation. There were besides investings in resources to drive new application development across both divisions. The one-year study besides shows the changeless exchange rate was up 53 % compared to 2009. As discussed above, the addition in gross to 82 % to ?189.5m in 2010 from ?103.8m in 2009 was as a consequence of addition in gross revenues. Besides depreciation in sterling besides helped the company ‘s growing as the gross of the other markets increased ( Victrex, 2010 ) .2.1.2.6 MARK UP RATIOThe Mark up Ratio is another manner of mensurating the profitableness of a concern. It besides measures the sum of net income added to the cost of gross revenues, in add-on it can be the cost of goods sold peers to the gross revenues gross ( Perry, 2011 ) . Mark up Ratio can be defined by Dyson ( 2007 ) as: Mark up Ratio = Gross Profit A- 100 Cost of Gross saless In 2010, it was 120.6m A- 100 = 175.04 % ( 68.9 ) m In 2009, it was 64.5m A- 100 = 164.12 % ( 39.3 ) m The Mark up ratio difference between 2009 and 2010 is 10.92 % . This implies that the gross net income increased 87 % with the gross border at 63.6 % of the gross in 2010. The gross border grew to 63.6 % in 2010 from 62.1 % in 2009. The 1.5 % difference was due to positive impact of currency partly offset by an addition in cost per metric tons as gross revenues were mostly out of stock list produced in 2009. There was a lessening in production volumes in 2009 as a consequence of increased fixed production costs per metric ton. Besides, there was an addition in gross revenues which led to an 82 % addition in gross to ?189.5m in 2010 from ?103.8m in 2009. Besides depreciation in Sterling besides helped the company ‘s growing as the gross from other markets increased. Although, Cost of Goods increased by 75.3 % between 2009 and 2010 and this was as a consequence of addition in demand of Victrex Peek Polymers across all markets, the company still made an addition in gross ( Victrex , 2010 ) .2.1.3 EFFICIENCY RATIOThis ratio is besides known as the activity ratio. The efficiency ratio is used to mensurate how efficaciously a concern endeavor is runing. It is concerned about the chiefly usage of assets ( Jones, 2006 ) . This ratio is used to find how a concern uses its assets to keep its activities and gross revenues ( White et al. , 2003 ) . Four of the efficiency ratios will be used to analyze Victrex Plc.2.1.3.1 SALES PER ?1 CAPITAL EMPLOYED ( NET ASSET TURNOVER )This ratio is besides known as Asset Turnover Ratio. It indicates how efficaciously the stockholders financess are bring forthing money ( Perry, 2011 ) . Harmonizing to Perry ( 2011 ) , It can be defined as: Gross saless per ?1 Capital Employed = Gross saless = Gross saless Capital Employed Total Assets – Current Liabilitiess In 2010, it is 189.5m = 189.5m = 0.80 times 278.9m -42.5m 236.5m In 2009, it is 103.8m = 103.8m = 0.53 times 221.0m – 26.3m 194.7m The consequences above show that the stockholders financess generated more money in 2010 than in the old twelvemonth. There was an addition in gross due to an addition in gross revenues and a depreciation of Sterling besides helped the company ‘s growing as the gross from other markets increased. Capital employed increased by ?41.8m between 2009 and 2010. This was as a consequence of addition in hard currency and hard currency equivalents, trade and other receivables, deferred revenue enhancement rates & A ; trade and other payables. Giving a proper account, the entire assets besides increased by 26.2 % to ?279m in 2010 from ?221m in 2009, this was as a consequence of an addition in hard currency with ?77.2m in 2010 from ?18.6m in 2009 which reflects the strong recoil in gross revenues generated from operations which was shown on the hard currency flow statement. The current liabilities were up due to an addition in trade and other payables that were affected by accumulations o f ?18.7m in 2010 and ?8.8m in 2009 which implies the company still has hard currency to pay to their creditors ( Victrex, 2010 ) .2.1.3.2 NON- CURRENT ( FIXED ) ASSET TURNOVERThis ratio provides an analysis of how expeditiously the fixed assets are at bring forthing gross revenues. It is effectual as an internal index when comparing one period with another ( Perry, 2011 ) .According to Perry ( 2011 ) , it can be defined as: Non- Current ( Fixed ) Asset Turnover = Gross saless Non-Current ( Fixed ) Assetss In 2010, it was 189.5m = 1.31 145.1m In 2009, it was 103.8m = 0.71 146.8m Looking at the consequences above, Victrex Plc used its fixed assets more efficaciously in 2010 compared to 2009 therefore the concern is less at hazard in 2010 than in 2009. This can be explained stating â€Å" for every GBP ( ? ) tied up in non-current assets, the sum generated from gross revenues was higher † . This can be farther explained due to the addition in gross which was due to a encouragement in gross revenues and depreciation of the Sterling as before discussed in the old subdivision. There was a lessening in fixed assets and this can be explained looking at the lessening in belongings, works and equipment which was ?125.3m in 2010 from ?129.5m in 2009, this lessening was as a consequence of depreciation over the utile economic life of the assets. Besides Intangible assets besides decreased in 2010 to ?10.1m from ?10.3m in 2009 due to the good will of the acquisition of Victrex Polymer Solution being tested for damage, therefore cut downing the good will of the ac quisition. Besides the impact of the know-how of the acquisition associated with the natural stuff BDF was to the full amortised by 2010 ensuing to no consequence on the intangible assets ( Victrex, 2010 ) .2.1.3.3 INVENTORY TURNOVER RATIOThis ratio is besides known as stock turnover ratio. This ratio efficaciously measures the velocity with which stock moves through the concern. This varies from concern to concern and merchandise to merchandise ( Jones, 2006 ) . Harmonizing to Perry ( 2011 ) , it can be defined as: Inventory Turnover Ratio = Cost of Goods Sold Inventory In 2010, it was 68.9m = 2.00 times 34.5m In 2009, it was 39.3m = 1.06 times 37.2m The computation above shows that the stock list turnover increased 2.00 times in 2010, this implies that for every sale of two, there was one stock list held while in 2009, for every sale of one, there was one stock list held. Thus Victrex Plc was more effectual in 2010 at buying and merchandising of goods, farther explicating that there was more sale compared to the degree of stock list held and the company was able to turn over its stock list better compared to the old twelvemonth ( 2009 ) .This consequence is affected by the addition in cost of goods sold which was ?68.9m in 2010 from ?39.3m in 2009 as there was a higher demand of merchandises in 2010 and the betterment over the period reflects the favorable effectual exchange rates together with a lower implicit in cost of gross revenues per metric ton in the 2nd half ensuing from lower fixed costs per metric ton as production volume increased. Inventory decreased to ?34.5m in 2010 from ?37.2m in 2009, although natural stuffs inc reased due to the company carrying natural stuffs to enable them keep supplies during any short term break but finished goods decreased in 2010 compared to 2009 because there was a short term rush in the demand for goods ( Victrex, 2010 ) .2.1.3.4 RECEIVABLES COLLECTION PERIODThis ratio seeks to mensurate how long clients take to pay their debts. Therefore, the quicker the concern collects and Bankss the money, the better it is for the company. This ratio can be used monthly, hebdomadal or day-to-day footing ( Jones, 2006 ) . Harmonizing to Perry ( 2011 ) , it can be defined as: Receivables Collection Period = Receivables A- 365 Gross saless In 2010, it was 19.1m A- 365 = 36.79 yearss 189.5m In 2009, it was 15.7m A- 365 = 55.21 yearss 103.8m Looking at the computations above, this implies that the concern was more efficient at retrieving its debts from clients as the consequences were lower in 2010 with 36.79days compared to 55.21days in 2009. This was as a consequence of addition in gross revenues of goods produced in 2010 compared to 2009. This besides indicates that in 2010 there was better hard currency flow as it took a shorter clip to have money owed by clients compared to 2009 ( Victrex, 2010 ) .2.1.4 LIQUIDITY RATIOThese ratios are derived from the balance sheets and seek to prove how easy a company can pay its debts. These ratios are of import to loan creditors such as bankers who have loaned to the concern ( Jones, 2006 ) . There are two types of ratios viz. the ‘current ratio ‘ and the ‘acid trial ratio ‘ ( Perry, 2011 ) . These ratios will be used to analyze Victrex Plc ‘s liquidness.2.1.4.1 CURRENT RATIOThis ratio tests whether the short term assets cover the short term liabilit ies. If this is non the instance, so there will be deficient liquid financess instantly to pay to the creditors ( Jones, 2006 ) . Harmonizing to Perry ( 2011 ) , Current ratio can be defined as: Current Ratio = Inventory + Receivables + Cash and Cash Equivalents Payabless + Short Term Borrowings In 2010, it was 34.52m + 0.74m + 19.11m + 2.24m +77.27m = 133.88m = 3.15: 1 ( 25.15 ) m + ( 15.11 ) m + ( 2.27 ) m ( 42.53 ) m In 2009, it was 37.17m + 1.02 m+15.66 m+ 1.70m +18.56m = 74.11m = 2.82: 1 ( 6.30 ) m + ( 5.42 ) m + ( 14.58 ) m ( 26.3 ) m From the computation above, current ratio increased from 2.82 in 2009 to 3.15 in 2010. Therefore in 2010, for every ?1 in current liabilities, there is ?3.15 in current assets compared to 2009 during which for every ?1 in current liabilities, there is ?2.82 in current liabilities. This implies that the concern has adequate hard currency to cover its liabilities. If the current assets exceed the current liabilities, this could bespeak sufficient hard currency in the concern ( Dyson, 2007 ) . However, the major impact on the addition in current ratio was as a consequence of addition in hard currency of ?58.7m between 2009 and 2010, which reflects the strong recoil in gross revenues and the Group has a committed bank installation of ?40m, all of which was undrawn at the twelvemonth terminal and this expires in September 2012. Besides looking at the hard currency flow statement, the company generated hard currency from operations. There was an addition in receivables of ?3.4m between 200 9 and 2010. The current liabilities were up due to an addition in trade and other payables that were affected by accumulations of ?18.7m in 2010 from ?8.8m in 2009 which implies the company still has hard currency to pay to their creditors and besides an addition in current income revenue enhancement liabilities of ?9.7m between 2009 and 2010 ( Victrex, 2010 ) .2.1.4.2 ACID TEST RATIOThis is besides known as the Quick Ratio. It is a step of utmost short -term liquidness, therefore the acerb trial ratio excludes stock lists, which is the least liquid of the current assets to get at an immediate trial of the company ‘s liquidness ( Jones, 2006 ) . The importance of this ratio is that it has a clearer image of the state of affairs as a house may non be able to dispose of its stock lists instantly ( Dyson, 2007 ) .According to Perry ( 2011 ) , Acid Test Ratio can be defined as: Acid Test Ratio = Receivables + Cash and Cash Equivalents Payabless + Short Term Borrowings In 2010, it was 0.74m + 19.11m + 2.24m +77.27m = 99.36m = 2.34: 1 ( 25.15 ) m + ( 15.11 ) m + ( 2.27 ) m ( 42.53 ) m In 2009, it was 1.02m +15.66m + 1.70m +18.56m = 36.94m = 1.40: 1 ( 6.30 ) m + ( 5.42 ) m + ( 14.58 ) m ( 26.30 ) m Looking at the computation above, there is an addition in Acid trial ratio of 2.34 in 2010 from 1.40 in 2009, even after the stock lists were removed. This means that the concern has adequate hard currency to cover its liabilities. This implies that the stock lists did non hold an impact in the ratio as the major part to this alteration were the addition in hard currency every bit good as the addition in trade and other receivables, addition in payables and current income revenue enhancement liabilities, as these were explained above in the current ratio ( Victrex, 2010 ) . Therefore an acerb trial ratio above one ( 1 ) implies the company can still change over hard currency at easiness.2.1.5 FINANCIAL GEARING RATIOSThese ratios measure the ability of the concern to run into its longer-term duties and they indicate the sum of hazard to which stockholders are exposed through the sum of debt nowadays in the concern capital construction ( Jones, 2006 ) . Gearing ratio and Interest Cover will be used to analyze Victrex Plc.2.1.5.1 GEARING RATIOThis ratio measures the relationship between equity and debt capital of a company. The geartrain of a concern demonstrates how reliant the concern is on borrowed money, instead than portion capital. ( Perry, 2011 ) . Harmonizing to Perry ( 2011 ) , pitching ratio can be defined as: Gearing Ratio = Net Borrowings ( Debts ) A- 100 Stockholders Fundss ( Equity ) Harmonizing to Annual Report, the geartrain ratio could non be calculated as there were no net adoptions in 2009 and 2010. Based on the fact that the Group had a committed bank installation of ?40m, all of which was undrawn at the twelvemonth terminal and this expires in September 2012 ( Victrex, 2010 ) .2.1.5.2 Interest ScreenThis ratio is of peculiar involvement to those who have loaned money to the company ( Jones, 2006 ) . Harmonizing to Perry ( 2011 ) , it can be defined by demoing the relationship during the trading period between runing net incomes and the involvement charges ensuing from the degree of debt during the period. The expression is: Interest Cover = Operating Profit = Operating Net income Net Interest/ Finance charges Finance Cost – Finance Income In 2010, it was 74.9m = 74.9m = 1.63 ( 93 ) m -139m ( 46 ) m In 2009, it was 25.1m = 25.1m = 0.81 ( 60 ) m – 91m ( 31 ) m Deducing from the computation above, the involvement screen has increased in 2010 to 1.63 from 0.81 in 2009. This addition implies that the company is bring forthing adequate gross to pay its debts. This addition in 2010 is due to the fact that the operating net income increased which is as a consequence of addition in gross as there was more demand of the merchandises taking to an addition in gross revenues compared to the old twelvemonth ( 2009 ) . Therefore in 2009, the concern could hold been in a fiscal hazard as at that place might non hold been sufficient hard currency to sit out sudden downswing as a consequence of the lessening in gross. The finance income increased in 2010 to ?139m from ?91m in 2009. The Finance Cost increased by ?33m between 2009 and 2010. This ratio is of import to stockholders ( Victrex, 2010 ) .3.0 DecisionRatio Analysis is a really of import manner of measuring the overall public presentation of an Organisation. Many administrations use this technique to compare the company ‘s public presentation over clip or compare it with the fiscal public presentation of other companies. However, holding analysed Victrex ‘s Plc ‘s, it can be said that Victrex Plc is a traveling concern as it has sufficient hard currency and resources to command its operational being. Looking at the five twelvemonth fiscal sum-up, it can be said that that twelvemonth 2010 has proven to be the best fiscal twelvemonth over the period. These analysis show that the company had an addition in hard currency and hard currency equivalents, addition in gross revenues volume, high gross border and besides an addition in the operating net income. Therefore, in footings of its profitableness, the company had an addition in the gross border demoing an betterment which was based on addition in gross with the the major accelerator to this being the favorable exchange rates and increase in gross revenues. The operating border besides increased as a consequence of the addition of gross revenues, selling and disposal disbursals which emanated from elements of staff wage being linked to the fiscal public presentation. There was besides an addition in the return of capital employed, return on entire assets and besides return on stockholders financess. This addition in 2010 indicates that the company has done better overall compared to the old old ages in footings of a step in the concern success doing the company attractive as an investing. Looking at the efficiency ratio, the stock list turnover increased as a consequence of high demand of merchandises across different markets. The non-current assets ratio increased although Property, works and equipment decreased as a consequence of depreciation of the assets, Besides the receivables aggregation period reduced bespeaking that the company is better at recovering its debts from its debitors, and eventually Net plus turnover besides increased as a consequence of addition in hard currency and hard currency equivalent as its impact reflected on the capital employed. Therefore, this addition in 2010 indicates that the company is better at utilizing its assets efficaciously in bring forthing gross revenues compared to the old old ages. Sing the liquidness of the company, a decision can be drawn based on the current plus ratio and the acerb trial ratio which indicate an addition due to hard currency and hard currency equivalents and besides the addition in the trade and other receivables, therefore bespeaking that the company will be able to pay off any debt if a state of affairs occurs in twelvemonth 2010. In footings of the fiscal geartrain ratios, this helps to bespeak how stable the company is, looking at Victrex Plc, there was no pitching ratio calculated as the house had no net adoptions but there was an addition in involvement screen this was as a consequence of the addition in operating net income and besides based on the addition in portion premium, therefore this addition in 2010 will let stockholders to appreciate the growing of the concern compared to the old twelvemonth. Conclusively, Victrex Plc appears to be a well positioned company for continued growing in its section of the market in twelvemonth 2010 compared to the old twelvemonth. The direction of Victrex Plc have a good apprehension of the markets they operate in by proactively expecting the expected demands of their clients and go oning to take advantage of chances within the market topographic point and spread out its skylines as a market leader in the production of high public presentation thermoplastics polymers.WORD COUNT: 5579Section 24.0 THE ROLE OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT IN MANAGING A BUSINESSWorking Capital can be defined as the current assets less current liabilities. The major constituents of the current assets are stock lists, trade and other receivables and hard currency and hard currency equivalents while current liabilities constituents are trade and other payables, bank overdraft and short term adoptions ( Mclaney & A ; Atrill, 2008 ) . Working Capital Management can be defined as the direction and control of the current assets and current liabilities which are the chief components of the on the job capital ( Mathur, 2002 ) . The importance of working capital direction is an indispensable portion of a concern short-run planning procedure. Management should do determinations on how much of each constituent should be held ( Mclaney & A ; Atrill, 2008 ) .According to Vijayakumar ( 2001 ) , the significance of working capital direction comprises of two grounds viz. 1 ) A significant part of a entire investing is invested in the current assets and 2 ) degree of the current assets and current liabilities will alter as a consequence in fluctuation in gross revenues. Working capital direction is of import to the fiscal wellness of the concern from all industries. The on the job capital demands of a peculiar concern are likely to alter over clip as a consequence of alterations in the concern environment, giving room for determinations to be made invariably ( Mclaney & A ; Atrill, 2008 ) . Therefore Working Capital has acquired a great significance and sound place for two duplicate objects of profitableness and liquidness. The importance of working capital direction and its satisfactory proviso can take non merely to material nest eggs in the economical usage of capital but besides assist in fostering the ultimate purpose of the concern by maximizing the fiscal returns on the minimal sum of capital that needs to be employed ( Vijayakumar, 2001 ) . If on the job capital is mismanaged, it can take to loss of net incomes in the short-term but will consequences to a ruin of the house in the long-term. Thus the adequateness of working capital together with efficient managing determines the endurance or death of the house. In the existent universe scenario, a house can be and last without doing net income but it can non last without working capital financess, therefore this could take to bankruptcy and closing over a period of clip. Therefore in footings of the working capital direction, one should see the short-run liquidness place of the house. The investing determination in the current assets trades with a few jobs with working capital direction as profitableness and liquidness are dependent on the current assets direction. Therefore an appropriate degree of current assets and current liabilities in the concern determines the degree of working capital that affects the house ‘s liquidness ( Vijayakumar, 2001 ) . The victorious game was a simulation during the fiscal analysis and control faculty, the author ‘s function in this game was a financial officer. The financial officer ‘s duty in the game was to rede the squad on hard currency planning, to manage, control and record hard currency motions and fix the hard currency flow statement. After readying of the hard currency flow statement, the financial officer reconciled the hard currency records to the existent hard currency place throughout the twelvemonth. The financial officer worked closely with the fiscal director to jointly command all hard currency motions whether receivables or payables. The financial officer besides advised the squad to win gross revenues from the place market as receivable period was one one-fourth and the sale to the foreign markets was two quarters. Selling to the place market helped increase the hard currency flow state of affairs as hard currency was gotten faster for goods sold. The beginnings of financess were through loans, discounting and bing stockholder ‘s equity. The squad merely indulged in the discounting option one time as seen in twelvemonth one in the income statement as it was seen as less profitable. However, high sums of loans were borrowed in twelvemonth two to back up the technology and quality in order to be able to win commands as this can be shown in the balance sheet for twelvemonth one and two. Overall, looking at the direction of the on the job capital of the game, one can infer that as a consequence of hapless squad determination doing which led to high stock list degree based on purchase of natural stuffs which were non planned decently, the purchase of new equipments increased the work in advancement, we did non profit in gross revenues as we had insufficient contract to run into capacity and besides big unfilled contracts led to increase in the degree of stock list. Receivables were besides delayed due to the type of contract we bided for and besides dependant on the foreign market which took a long clip to have hard currency. Therefore in the existent universe state of affairs, the financial officer should give considerable clip in effectual control and the supervising of working capital constituents as this generates growing and net income of the concern.WORD COUNT: 7785.0 MARGINAL CostingFringy costing can be defined as a technique which divides costs in two classs viz. fixed cost and variable cost when bring forthing an excess unit of a merchandise. A fixed cost can be defined in the short tally as it does non change in entire when end product fluctuates, for illustration ; rent for a mill, while variable costs are those that entire cost varies pro rata with the volume of end product, for illustration, Direct Material and Direct Labour ( Mott, 2008 ) . Harmonizing to Perry ( 2011 ) , a circumstance whereby a merchandise is already being produced and an extra merchandise is demanded by a client, the cost of bring forthing the extra merchandise is referred to as Marginal Costing. In the winning border game, the fringy costing enabled the squad to do determinations based on what type of merchandises to be manufactured and what is required in the production. In Year 3 of the game, the squad explored chances in order to increase profitableness by puting in merchandise support to guarantee all merchandises are sold. It besides helped in optimizing part by measuring the difference between the best and worst scenarios of the terrier and the tiger ‘s sale values, variable cost and unit part. Therefore, the benefit of the fringy costing in the game helped the squad purpose at winning orders closer to the best terminal of the part where it was profitable. In the existent universe state of affairs, Marginal Costing is used by direction to assist do determinations to the best cost of action in the short term ( Millichamp, 1997 ) . Decisions made by direction by the aid of fringy costing can be classified harmonizing to Mott ( 2008 ) as: Make or Buy Decisions One -off pricing Decisions The effects of a alteration in Product Mix The Volume requires to interrupt even or do a specified net income A pick between Alternative Cost StructuresWORD COUNT: 3126.0 BUDGETINGBudgeting can be defined as an of import tool for pull offing and commanding a concern ( Mclaney & A ; Atrill, 2008 ) . Harmonizing to Perry ( 2010 ) , a budget aim identifies where the concern demands to be at the terminal of a fiscal twelvemonth. A budget should be prepared as a resource program to enable that both fiscal and market aims are achieved. Therefore Harmonizing to Drury ( 2004 ) and Millichamp ( 1997 ) , the intent of budgeting are classified into several features ; some of these features would be used by the author to discourse the budgeting technique used in the winning border game. These Features are as follows: Planning: Budgets are used for future planning of activities in a company. It is used to benchmark to guarantee companies run into their ends. In the winning border, the squad made programs based on what merchandise should be produced, what market to put in and programs based on fiscal issues such as loans to enable be aftering on hard currency influx and escape. Profitableness: Budgets can be used for measuring future profitableness of direction programs. This is used in comparing the budget program to the existent consequences as this was done in the winning border in twelvemonth two in ciphering the production budget and gross revenues budget which was compared to the existent program. Coordination: The benefit of a budget is to enable assorted sections to collaborate and compromise when there is limited resources. In the winning game, the squad cooperated in respects to the production capacity as to what contract to travel for, what market to put in and what stock to buy and this helps observe any coordination jobs and better efficiency. Communication: Budgeting enabled different sections in the winning border game exchange information and thoughts as the financial officer recorded hard currency motions, fiscal director handled the fiscal policies, the buying director was in charge of stock list, the commercial director was cognizant of what market to put in and the production director was cognizant of what equipment to purchase. Resource Allocation: Budget aid in easing resource allotment in a company. In the winning border, resources were distributed across the assorted sections as hard currency escape was as a consequence of technology and quality, merchandise support and equipments. In the existent universe, Budgeting can be used to advance frontward thought and it is a short term agencies of working towards a concern aims.WORD COUNT: 394

Friday, January 3, 2020

Anorexia Nervosa Nursing Interventions - 1326 Words

Anorexia nervosa: Nursing interventions Anorexia nervosa has a higher mortality rate than any other psychological illness. Its primary clinical feature is extreme emaciation as a result of the patients refusal to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss may be achieved through caloric restriction or a combination of caloric restriction and purging behaviors (vomiting, laxatives, and exercise) (Understanding eating disorders, 2013, Australia Psychological Society). Besides self-starvation, other physical signs of the disorder include intolerance of the cold, fatigue, low blood pressure, slow or irregular heartbeat, amenorrhea, thinning hair, and fine, light excessive body hair called lanugo (Symptoms, 2013, Anorexia nervosa.). Long-term complications of anorexia may include hormonal and endocrine imbalances, osteoporosis (bone loss) and major organ failure (Symptoms, 2013, Anorexia nervosa.). Because of fear of enforced weight gain, most anorexics deny they have a problem, and concealment of the behaviors and strategies used for weight loss is another sign of the illness. Anorexia nervosa is a complex eating disorder with a multifaceted aetiology and to date no reputable treatment approach (Ramjan 2004: 496). Restoration of weight is not synonymous with a cure of anorexia, although often reaching a certain weight is necessary for very emaciated patients to benefit from therapy. The most common techniques to deal with anorexia include hospitalization for weightShow MoreRelatedDiagnosing A Patient With Anorexia Nervosa857 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Anorexia nervosa is a self-induced starvation resulting from a fear of fatness, even though the patient is underweight.† (Ignatavicius Workman, 2016, p. 1238) This disorder is most commonly seen in adolescent girls and women but can be seen in boys and men. Care for patients with anorexia nervosa can be quite complicated but is essential for their recovery. If these patients do not receive proper care they can deteriorate quickly and death will then be inevitable. â€Å"Approximately 15% of all patientsRead MoreProposal for Evidence Based Practice Paper for Anorexia Nervosa in Teenagers2153 Words   |  9 Pagesbetween the ages of twelve and eighteen who are diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). It will address the nature and extent of the issue of AN in the target population, weigh the positive and negative aspects of different types of therapies on the target population and show the potential limitations of the use of DBT versus other forms of therapies. Proposal for Evidence Based Practice Paper This paper will discuss Anorexia Nervosa as an eating disorder that predominantly affects girls andRead MoreAnorexia Nervosa, Case Study2389 Words   |  10 Pagesable to please her father. Her brother, two years younger, left home to join the navy earlier this year. 2. Provide a summary of the diagnosis and describe the course of the illness. Wozniak, Rekleiti and Roupa (2012) outline early signs of anorexia nervosa (AN); preoccupation with food, weight and calories; rigidity and rituals around eating, avoidance of family meals, denial of hunger and excessive exercise. As it progresses the patient may seem withdrawn, absent sense of humour, angry and depressedRead MoreEating Disorders And The American Culture3118 Words   |  13 Pagesor is currently suffering from an eating disorder. Eating disorders take many forms such as bulimia, anorexia nervosa, binge-eating, and even obesity. The focus of this paper however will be solely on anorexia nervosa. It will breakdown the basics of anorexia as well as compare and contrast the movie Starving in Suburbia with scholarly literature. Anorexia According to Bemporad (1996), anorexia was thought to have first appeared in the 19th century until more researched revealed that it was prevalentRead MoreSymptoms, Causes, And Treatments For Anorexia Nervosa2622 Words   |  11 Pages Anorexia Nervosa Natasha Schwartz Concordia University Abstract The purpose of this paper is to explain the symptoms, causes, and treatments for Anorexia Nervosa. Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder found in the DSM-5. Anorexia is classified by: a restriction of energy intake leading to significantly low body weight, intense fear of gaining weight, and denial or disturbance of ones low body weight. Anorexia nervosa is considered a psychiatric illness that presents severeRead MoreAn Episode Of Care For A Patient Suffering From Complex Health Care Needs2139 Words   |  9 Pagesmalnutrition and their relationship to lung cancer. In accordance with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC): The Code (2015), the details of this case study will maintain confidentiality at all times through the use of the pseudonyms. Mrs. Warley is a 37-year-old woman who lives with her partner in rented accommodation. The couple do not have any children. Mrs. Warley’s past medical history includes depression and anorexia nervosa, conditions from which she has suffered since her teenage years. SheRead More Nursing Research Article Critique Essay1663 Words   |  7 Pagesstudy and discuss the importance the study has in relation to the nursing profession. Eating disorders and stress can describe in a number of different ways. Eating disorders consist of those who display abnormal eating behaviors, where a person may under or over eat (Townsend, 2009). Some disorders include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and obesity; in most cases these disorders fall in the psychiatry and psychiatric nursing (Townsend). Stress is also a psychological state, in which a personRead MoreEssay about Psy/240 Final Project: Analyzing Biopsychological Disorders1935 Words   |  8 Pageswill be examining each problem from the perspective of a bio psychologist. I will define the patient’s diagnosis at length I will relate each case to the nature-nurture theory, and talk about any helpful drug interventions or solutions for each disorder. When talking about drug intervention, it is also important to discuss the positive and negative effects that the drugs may have on the patient. Lastly I will discuss any treatment methods that have been found throu gh research to be effective forRead MoreClient History : Desiree Sabugo ( Ds ) Essay1582 Words   |  7 PagesClient History Desiree Sabugo (DS) is a 21- year- old first year nursing student who was born and raised in the Philippines. Client DS moved to Hawaii when she was 13 years old. She has a weight problem. She found out that she was underweight when her elementary school in the Philippines organized a feeding program for underweight students. Until then, DS’s weight has been below the average weight for her age and height. She was hospitalized for acute bronchitis when she was 12 years oldRead MoreEating Disorder Essay2080 Words   |  9 Pagesyounger children mostly involving problems that arise in childhood and adolescence. Many times eating disorders could be less prevalent, but throughout today’s era eating disorders have increased significantly; the most common eating disorder, anorexia nervosa has increased three times over the past forty years (Bà ¤ck, 2011). Moreover, overweight and obesity within children and adults has increased significantly over the past twenty y ears (Bà ¤ck, 2011). These dramatic statistics are influenced from parent-child

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Clara Barton Biography Essay - 1216 Words

Clara Barton Clara Barton, known as an American humanitarian, the â€Å"Angel of the Battlefield,† and known for being the American Red Cross founder accomplished many things during her life. Throughout her long commitment of service, Clara achieved honor as a teacher, battlefield nurse, lecturer, and founder of the American Red Cross. Through her many years of work, Clara made a huge impact on America that can still be felt at present times. Clara was born Clarissa Harlowe Barton on Christmas Day of 1821 in North Oxford, Massachusetts. Her father, Captain Stephen Barton, and mother, Sarah Barton, raised her on a farm along with her two brothers, David and Stephen, and two sisters, Dorothy, and Sally. Most of Clara’s†¦show more content†¦Clara, influenced by her sisters who were already teachers, began the first part of her career by becoming a teacher at age seventeen. She began teaching in Worcester County of Massachusetts and taught in various others schools for 6 years. Clara then realized she needed a change and decided to open up her own school. After running her own school for a few years Clara recognized that she needed more change and at age 29, Clara enrolled in an advanced school for female teachers in Clinton, New York. This addition to her education led her to a teaching position in New Jersey which opened the opportunity for her to open several free schools there in New Jersey. Her schools were very successful and students flocked to be a part of them. After much success in her teaching career, Clara finally ran into rejection when the school board refused her the position of heading the school she ha d founded and instead gave the job to a less qualified man. This greatly upset Clara and she again decided she needed a change, however this time the change was more dramatic. After recovering from the emotional effects of the events that occurred in New Jersey, Clara took a job in Washington D.C. as a copy clerk in the U.S. Patent Office. This job did not last long since at age 40, when the American Civil War broke out she felt the need to resign and become a volunteer for the Union. As a volunteer,Show MoreRelatedA Brief Biography of Clara Barton632 Words   |  3 Pagesfeed and nurse them,† Clara Barton once said. She was always quick to help others, and put their lives before her own. She wasn’t very talkative, but she was very generous. Barton was named â€Å"The Angel of The Battlefield† she got this name while she was considering having an escort and months after he has been her escort that’s what she got named. Clara would make sure she gave the soldiers the correct care they needed. Clara Barton changed the health for many. Barton benefited in changingRead MoreClara Barton: Founder of the Red Cross Essay2080 Words   |  9 Pagesstay. For I am one of them as well and by their side I will remain.† I wonder if Clara Barton spoke to herself in that very same way†¦Get your eyes ready to take a journey through the life of one of the great women who aided our soldiers; far back before we were born. Clarrisa Harlowe Barton, later known as Clara, was born on Christmas day in 1821. She was the fifth and youngest child of Sarah Stone and Stephen Barton in Oxford, Massachusetts. Her father was well known because of the local UniversalistRead MoreNursing And Public Health Nursing1537 Words   |  7 Pageshistorical nursing leaders include the following; Clara Barton, Lillian Wald, and Dame Agnes Gwendoline Hunt. These were three important individuals who made a difference when it came to nursing. Clara Barton was the President of the American Red Cross before she became President she was a nurse. According to History, â€Å"As the war ended, she helped locate thousands of missing soldiers, including identifying the dead at Andersonville prison in Georgia. Barton lobbied for U.S. recognition of the InternationalRead MoreThe Angel of the Battlefield1215 Words   |  5 PagesAngel of the Battlefield Clara Barton once said, I have an almost disregard of precedent and a faith in the possibility of something better. It irritates me to be told how things have always been doneÂ… I defy the tyranny of precedent. I cannot afford the luxury of a closed mind. I go for anything new that might improve the past (Lewis 1). Also known at the Angel of the Battlefield during the Civil War, Clara Barton is a great heroine for her many achievements such as: establishing a free publicRead MoreEssay about History of Nursing: Florence Nightingale1795 Words   |  8 Pagesthe stereotype of the nurses when she was asked to organize a group of nurses for the sick and injured soldiers of the Crimean War. Without hesitation, Nightingale looked at different types of religious orders and brought on thirty- four nurses (Biography Channel). Nothing could have been done to prepare Nightingale and her nurses for what they were about to experience. The hospital was a disgrace, patients laying in their own specimens and rodents and insects could be seen scurrying across the floorsRead MoreCommunication Theorists And Its Impact On Society Essay965 Words   |  4 Pagesreligious and new old by were scholars. Much of the historical work in psychology was concerned with the great man and great theories of experiment psychology and was often celebratory or ceremonial in nature (p.119) biographies provide failures, achievements can be known by reading biographies one can better know about them, by examining the condition around leaders of productive labs. Producing of knowledge Bordogna, Centor, Rutherford and Vidal exception induvial in historical psychology, their importanceRead MoreEssay on Lav inia L Dock2527 Words   |  11 Pagesthe 1888 yellow fever epidemic in Jacksonville, Florida. That following spring, many volunteers came which gave Lavinia a chance to move back to Pennsylvania. During her stay in Johnstown she was introduced to her soon to be long time friend Clara Barton who founded the American Red Cross. Many believe this friendship really jumpstarted her professional nursing career. Thirty-four years later, the two worked together to write The History of American Red Cross (Sklar, 2000). Later that yearRead MoreAmerican Revolution and Study Guide Essay example5377 Words   |  22 Pages Chapter 20 Girding for War: The North and the South, 1861—1865 Balance of Power Quota Profiteer Elizabeth Blackwell martial law greenback Abraham Lincoln Succession ultimatum bond Jefferson Davis Fort Sumpter habeas corpus graft Clara Barton Confederacy 1. How did the Civil War change from a limited war to preserve the Union into a â€Å"total war† to abolish slavery? Explain (10pts) 2. Compare and contrast Northern advantages and Southern advantages by the onset of war between the Read MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pagesrequired—interaction between the colonial rulers and the local, colonized people in offices, shops, industries, and schools, although not as much in recreation. The results of this interaction were unpredictable. In addition to the social science literature, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, drama, and films are filled with the stories of indigenous people and colonial rulers who were transformed in one way or another through their interactions with the diverse residents and the institutions of the European